Geomorphologic Heritage Assessment of Khorramabad City for Urban Geotourism Development and Conservation against Human Hazards

Document Type : Applied Article


1 Professor of Natural Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

2 Associate Professor of Natural Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

3 Ph.D. Candidate in Geomorphology, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran


In recent years, the ideas of urban geomorphologic heritage and urban geotourism   have become very important among scientists and specialists. While, the human hazards affecting the natural environment of cities have damaged, destroyed ,and threatened urban geomorphological heritage. Therefore, the assessment of the urban geomorphological heritage and suggestion a conservation program is a basic necessity for development stable urban geotourism and is the main goal of this research. This study was conducted as a case in Khorramabad city. This research has been conducted with an innovative and integrated approach by combining fieldwork, quantitative assessment of geomorphological heritage, and investigation of damage and destruction factors and, finally offered a conservation program for the first time. Research data are mainly provided through fieldwork, image resources and subjective maps. The tools used include subjective maps, field tools and ARC GIS 10.6 software. For data analysis, the Pica et al. (2017) model has been used to geomorphosites assessment and fieldwork done to check human hazards affecting them and presented a conservation program. The results showed that among 33 geomorphosites, Falakolaflak hill with 25, Makhmalkuh with 24 and Shabikhun cluse with 22 score, gained the highest scores for the development of urban geotourism. Among the threatening hazards of geomorphological heritage, the maximum amount respectively was related to the road construction, the construction in the foothills and the release of garbage and wastes in the geomorphosite core zone. Therefore, in the present research, a conservation framework has been developed in five sections: creation organizational support, assessment, hazard identification, conservation measurements and monitoring for conservation of geomorphological heritage and consequently stable development of Khorramabad urban geotourism.
Geomorphological heritage are not limited to natural areas, rural and open spaces, but very valuable examples of it can be found in urban spaces. Urban geomorphological heritage can be defined simply as a geologically attractive location, and in particular geomorphological within a city. In recent years, the ideas of urban geological heritage, urban geomorphological heritage, and urban geotourism have been great importance among scientists and specialists. While, numerous human hazards, destroying and threatening, the city's geomorphological heritage, which are the main sources of geotourism development. Therefore, the offer a conservation program for urban geomorphological heritage is a fundamental necessity for the development of sustainable urban geotourism. The main objective of this research is Inventory and evaluate the geomorphological heritage of the core zone of Khorramabad and its buffer zone in order to introduce to tourists and to develop urban geotourism and offer a conservation program as a fundamental necessity for the development of sustainable urban geotourism.
Materials and methods
To achieve research purposes of this research, data such as geomorphological maps, geology and etc. have been used. To do this research, First Geomorphosites of core zone the city and buffer zone it's through fieldwork has been inventoried, then, based on the model of Pica et al. (2017), the geomorphosites have been evaluated. In the next step, using field studies and surveys, have been identified threatening human Hazards each geomorphosite. Finally, based on the results of evaluation the geomorphosites and the check of human hazards affecting them, has been proposed the conservation program of in danger geomorphosites to develop sustainable Geotourism.
Discus and Results
According to the field studies conducted in the area for the inventorying of geomorphosites, samples and various types of geomorphological heritage are inventoried. In assessing the geomorphological heritage, the Falakolaflak hills, has gained the top scores among the geomorphosites evaluated in terms of urban geotourism. What that has caused more damage to Khorramabad city's geomorphosites included road construction, construction (as a result of physical development of the city), and the spill garbage. Therefore, based on the results obtained and field studies, has been offer a conservation program for the urban geomorphosites of Khorramabad. This protection plan has been written in five sections: organizational support, evaluation, understanding the hazards, protective actions and monitoring.
According to the results of the research, the core zone and the buffer zone of ​​Khorramabad city, has a lot of diversity of landforms, which has given the view and special beauty to this city. Part of this urban geomorphological heritage is anthropogenic or man-made phenomenon; but the problem that exists it is that these interventions and anthropogenic influences, if it is too much, become a completely negative and hazardous factor for the destruction of geomorphosites. Existing destructive effects show that is needed protective actions and after that to actions monitoring and continuous monitoring and the current protection rules to the extent that it seems are not protecting works and natural heritage. Therefore, serious action is needed in this regard.


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