Hazards Reduction Strategy In Iran Based On International Law And Relations

Document Type : Applied Article


1 Ph.D. in Crisis Management, Sheikh Bahaie University in Isfahan, Isfahan

2 Professor, PhD of Geomorphological Hazards, Faculty of Geography, Tehran University

3 Assistant Professor, PhD of Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, Tehran University

4 Professor, PhD of Earthquake Engineering, International Institute of Seismology, Tehran


During 1998 to 2017, more than 4450000000 people were exposed to natural hazards in the word, which impose  more than $ 2,900 billion in economic damage, and lost of 1330000 people. More than 67 percent of the dead and 45 percent of the economic damage are related to the two major earthquake and flood hazards that Iran as the tenth country of the earthquake has suffered from earthquake and flooding. Unfortunately, in Iran, the approach of the practical and useful strategy to reduce the hazards is not defined, therefore, we have increased the vulnerability of the community and increased the physical and psychological costs of natural hazards. Therefore, efforts to reduce the effects of hazards are a necessity. This paper, in terms of the purpose of the applied research, with the aim of determining the approach and formulating a national strategy to reduce hazards in Iran. Different strategies in the world based on international law and international relations have been defined to reduce the hazards. Due to the nature of the current natural hazards in Iran and the existing international capacities, the reform, strengthening, localization, establishment, and application of some laws, the establishment of the National Assembly of the Hazards Reduction for the coordination between operational organizations and policy centers and research centers at the level of the Ministry or the Vice Presidency, the national approval of the scientific, technical, financial, administrative and administrative capacities of hazard management to address identified hazards at national levels, and implement national and local strategies and plans to reduce the hazards in the intervals at different times. Hence, it can have a significant impact on Iran as a fundamental strategy of Iran.
hazard is a knowledge of human being, since humans have always had to know ways to maintain their health and environment. [1] The hazard is synonymous with the risk ratio. The synonym of the threat ratio is also introduced. At the same time, a comprehensive definition of hazard is that it is a serious harm to the event, phenomenon, process, state or activity that may be for a person, a population, a society, and the environment. Therefore, the hazard, is not the crisis, catastrophe, disaster and Unexpected. [2]
It is very important to consider risk factors to understand that hazards are not (natural). Risk-taking is a function of hazard (e.g. storm, earthquake, flood or fire), i.e. exposing individuals and assets to risk and vulnerability conditions of the community or property. Social and environmental development patterns can increase exposure and vulnerability, resulting in increased risk. [3]
As regards human rights, the Islamic Declaration of Human Rights states: "For the fulfillment of what has come down to the eternal Islamic religion, including the safeguarding of religion, life, wisdom and honor, property, generation, and other privileges such as comprehensive and moderate in kidney Positions and sentences. This law combines spirituality and matter and harmonizes wisdom and heart and creates balance of rights and duties between the individual's reverence and the general interest and establishes the criteria for the appointment among the parties concerned until neither the uprising No harm. "
 Occurrence of hazards is one of the most serious threats to human rights and, in many cases, destroys them. In order to assess the impact of human rights threats, it is essential to focus on two pivotal human rights instruments, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The two documents separate the rights set forth in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights into two distinct groups of civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. [4]
Without humanitarian assistance and international cooperation, the talk of reducing human suffering from natural hazards will remain mere words. For a long time, United Nations Member States have urgently urged international emergency relief efforts to save lives. Preservation of property and the environment, are known as an international problem. But despite this recognition, it must be acknowledged that international efforts to deal with natural hazards are very small compared to global natural hazards, and in this context the role of international law is also in terms of The theoretical (principles and rules of binding) and practical (territory and implementation) have been very poor. To achieve this, issues should be addressed in three dimensions: the role of law and international relations in relation to the responsibility of governments in protecting human rights in natural hazards, the role of law and international relations to deal with natural hazards, the role of law and international relations Natural hazards are reviewed.
 Materials and methods
The research methodology relates to the way in which the research is planned and implemented, which means choosing the appropriate method and finding out how it is applied in the area under study. [5] Accordingly, this paper is intended as a part of applied research with the aim of determining the framing and formulation of a national strategy to reduce the hazards in Iran. The qualitative research methodology is descriptive and analytical in terms of its nature. For this purpose, the resources of the library Documents and documents have been used. First, the concepts of hazards, rights and international relations have been investigated as key concepts of this paper and, at the end, a strategy is proposed to reduce the hazards of applying international law and international relations.
Discus and Results
Governments have as much influence and power. As much as they can, they can carry out their will at the national, regional and international levels. As simple as they can, they can just as well put their own words. [1] The vulnerability of Iran's land to earthquake hazards, floods, landslides, and other natural hazards has led to the importance of risk management in the country. hazards management includes actions in four phases: preparedness, prevention, accountability, and recovery. Each of these steps involves a variety of actions. Compliance with this process and doing it right and during the necessary steps in each of these steps will enhance safety and reduce damages in critical situations. A review of Iran's overall policy on "preventing and reducing the risks of natural hazards" shows that these policies have been developed and adjusted to take into account this logical and empirical hazards management process to secure the country and assure residents of different parts of the country.
In the meantime, the most important issue is the existence of a potential risk factor for each region, which can be released at any moment. Therefore, from the perspective of safety, the best and most appropriate action is the separation of humans from the danger zone, because it cannot be limited or completely controlled by hazard. Different countries have different patterns to deal with natural and man-made hazards, and these countries have tried to define a comprehensive hazards management plan, adequate hazards management strategies and tools and equipment, and appropriate organization. Therefore, in order to cope with and respond to potential hazards and the need for a prompt, correct and effective decision, a set of measures and plans is needed before, during and after the hazards. These programs, within the context of macro policies and the optimal hazards management perspective, by systematically observing hazards and analyzing them, seek the means by which they can prevent the occurrence of hazards or, if they do, reduce their effects. Making preparations for coping, emergency relief and emergency recovery.
In the three articles of civil law provided by the Iranian Vice President of Legal Affairs in December 2013, many cases regarding the rights of the people have been raised regarding the requirements of the executive authority to address the rights of the people, and in addition, in accordance with the duties and plans of the Expediency Council, From all potential in the country to deal with possible incidents and anticipate plans and actions in this regard, the general policy of the system on "prevention and reduction of the risks of natural hazards and unexpected events" in 2005 by the leader Iran was introduced to implement and apply to the country's major programs and policies. Which includes leadership communication policies to reduce hazards in four categories of preparedness, prevention, accountability, and recovery. Unfortunately, despite the policy of notification by the Supreme Leader, the existing laws and regulations regarding the reduction of hazards and financial resources are unfortunately still in difficulty in preparedness, prevention, accountability, and recovery the effects of the hazards.
Following all the issues raised in both Iran and other countries, various governmental and non-governmental organizations and organizations have focused on reducing the negative effects of hazards that have been emphasized in the framework of the hyogo and Sendy work on the use of their capacity and their potential to mitigate the hazards. Therefore, the compilation of an appropriate strategy to utilize all international and national capacities in the field of hazards reduction in Iran is necessary in order to be able to achieve further international co-ordination in the future in order to reduce the hazards in Iran.
In order to create the coherence and effectiveness of the different organs associated with hazards management, the establishment of the National Hazard Communication Council for the coordination of operational organizations, policy centers and research centers at the level of the ministry or vice president is necessary to enable the organization to make a national The scientific, technical, financial, administrative and managerial capacities of hazard management to address identified hazards at the national level and the reversibility of existing and new critical infrastructure, such as water, transport and telecommunications infrastructures Educational centers, hospitals and other health facilities for the purpose of ensure the safety, efficiency and effectiveness of time and after-accident to provide vital and life-saving services and fix their deficiencies in an effective timetable, and by establishing scientific, technical, and regulatory committees for strategic policies of the Assembly National Reductions of Global hazards and Recommendations, including the goals of the Document of Japan, have been followed up, and national and local strategies and plans have reduced the hazards in different time frames with specific goals, indicators and timeframes, To create a new hazard, reduce the existing natural hazards, and strengthen the economic, social, health and environmental reciprocity to definition and implementation.


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