Evaluation of Urban Flood Risk Potential with Secure Urban Development Attitude (Case Study: Gonbad-e-Kavoos)

Document Type : Applied Article


1 PhD Student of Geography and urban plan, Isfahan University

2 Professor of Geography and urban plan group, Isfahan University


Flooding can be the result of severe rainfalls, melting snow or ice, or damaging dams. The Gonbad-e-Kavoos city has been threatened by urban floods over the past few years, in particular the floods of 1991, 2000 and 2001.
Due to the lack of attention to the safety of the city after these hazards caused that this study has examined the potential of urban flood damage. Using a hierarchical analysis of AHP method and completing a questionnaire in an expert community of 35 people, we examined the flood risk factors in urban development. The results and its adaptation to the recent floods indicate the vulnerability of the city due to the several factors of external flood risk. For reducing these elements and Secure Urban Development, performing related studies and comprehensive planning by the relevant executive agencies on the agenda is necessary
Climate change causes flood. When the flood enters the urban areas, it causes damage and sometimes the death of people, because when the city during its growth and development raises natural hydrologic spaces. When cities are exposed to floods or planning on flood plains, requires policies or programs for tackling floods. In the first step, programing for exposed city, flood facing and governing the adverse economic and social consequences requires the understanding the flood regime of the basins as well as a range of urban lands adjacent to each river that is in the potential risk of flooding. Thus for promoting city and lowering spaces safety, a model of urban development is needed.
 Materials and Methods
The type of study and methodology is to examine hypotheses or answer questions, descriptive, empirical, content analysis, documentary and historical. The research methodology is descriptive and analytical based on field and library studies and map analysis which is a type of applied research. In this research, in order to assess the urban flood risk potential with and taking into account the factors involved in urban development in the form of studying the role of different organizations performance and the production of flood zoning map in a hierarchical analysis method, in a 35-member specialist community was subjected to a pair comparison. A hierarchical analysis process can be considered when decision-making practice has multiple decision options.
Discus and Results
After analyzing the hierarchical analysis process among the three main criteria, the study and planning of the executive unit with a total inconsistency rate of 0.08 with a maximum weight of 0.75, has the most important role in the issue of flood risk reduction. Additionally by selecting 9 parameters of flood criteria in formation of vegetation cover, land use, elevation from the sea, slope, soil type, drainage density, river flood plain, rainfall and distance from the river, zoning map of hazard potentiality has been prepared and based on that, the city of Gonbad is located in high risk areas of the flood. Visiting the field and its adaptation to the flood of March 2019 of Gonbad city, confirming the compliance with the map of the potential hazard which has been produced. It considers the need of improving the city's safety in relation to the risk of flood.
Therefore, due to the flood potentiality of the study area and the results obtained, it can be said that the studies and planning have been done so far - related to flood risk-  are insufficient. The need for integrated environmental studies and programing with integrated management in the form of urban development plans are necessary. It is the duty of the government to work hard on planning and implementing comprehensive flood management, attracting people's participation with preventing unnecessary losses in cities in preserving the lives and properties of their inhabitants. Implementing these issues require a change of approach and attitude in the government and the other Forces. Renewed attitude of the High Council for Urban Architecture of Iran in the recent approvals dated 11.5.2109, confirming the results of the research and changing the government's approach in this regard.


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