Non-criminal Preventive from Environmental Hazards in the Oil and Gas Industry

Document Type : Applied Article


1 Associate Professor University of Tehran

2 PhD Student in Criminal Law and Criminology, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran

3 Assistant Professor, University of Tehran


Following the devastating and irreversible effects of oil and gas industry activities around the world, as well as the increasing use of fossil fuels that have brought widespread hazards to the environment and human health, governments and the international community are seeking solutions for Cope with this environmental challenge. Although one of the solutions seems to be criminal suppressive measures, but considering the lack of impact of the penalties on the recovery of some previous injuries, the importance of preventive non-criminal measures that prior to the occurrence of such hazards is a strategic priority. Daily leakage of thousands of liters of oil into the seas and oceans, land degradation and land-use alterations caused by oil and gas pipes crossing, numerous pollution and platform explosions, car-borne pollution, only part of the risks and disadvantages is the use of hydrocarbons. This requires the application of various types of measures, which are intended to prevent them from being implemented in criminal law. Because the various dangers associated with activities related to the oil and gas industry sometimes fall under the heading of environmental degradation and sometimes do not constitute a specific criminal offense, their prevention in this regard is a crime or an instance of Environmental deviations have a significant place. However, the exploitation of oil and gas reservoirs has never been without the ecological side effects; contaminants leakage, damage to surrounding lands, fires and climate pollution have been observed in various locations. Recently, the social consequences of projects, especially in remote areas, have attracted the attention of experts and authorities. The world oil and gas industry has long been committed to environmental protection and has achieved remarkable results, but it is important to note that further improvements can always be made. It indicates the widespread destructive effects and dangers of these activities. If environmental laws are violated or ignored in the course of the activities of the oil and gas industry, these actions must be countered. This research is descriptive and analytical using library resources such as books, essays, doctoral dissertations and dissertations and other valid electronic resources. Therefore, the authors do not seek field studies and analysis of existing statistics. On the other hand, since there is no legal analysis of the risks of environmental pollution in the field of oil and gas in the existing scientific articles and sources, the present article is based on international documents governing oil and gas activities. Effective strategies to reduce the risks of environmental pollution and health hazards for humans have been tried and presented in a new research. Given that Iran is one of the major countries in the extraction and extraction of hydrocarbon resources, the feasibility of such non-criminal measures makes the preventive study of special importance. Failure to comply with the scientific rules for the extraction and extraction of these resources can contaminate the soil, aquatic and aerial environments and may pose immense challenges to the environment as well as the various organisms present in the environment. The occurrence of some destructive effects such as air pollution, respiratory problems, destruction and environmental pollution, etc. in some areas of Iran, especially the oil wells and gas resources in the south of the country, is an undeniable problem. The main reasons for such hazards from oil and gas pollution can be attributed to the lack of scientific rules regarding the production and refining and utilization of oil and gas hydrocarbon resources as well as the mismanagement and lack of reducing and controlling strategies of these activities. Non-criminal confrontation has the capability of design. The key question of this paper is therefore, what are the non-criminal strategies for preventing and confronting environmental hazards in the oil and gas industry and what is the impact of these strategies on preventing environmental degradation? Obliging to maintain standards for oil and gas extraction compliance with standards, as well as frequent monitoring of the health of activities and permissions in issuing instructions, can have a significant impact on risk reduction. In addition, since non-criminal measures are the basis for effective pre-emptive control and oversight, it can be possible to enhance the effectiveness of non-criminal strategies by enhancing the participatory activity of NGOs. On this basis, hazards knowledge, while combining the study of the adverse effects of the past as well as paying attention to the future full of risks arising from the activities of the oil and gas industry, gives non-criminal measures a more practical application. For example, the preventive activities of the prosecutors of Ahvaz, Abadan and Assaluyeh to reduce the air pollution caused by the refineries located in these cities. The reason for this action has been the environmental and health impacts of the citizens as a justification for this judicial action. Considering the knowledge of the hazards and its findings, attention should be given to the potential for harm to different areas of society. In order that, drawing on experts' knowledge of the hazards and proper management of scientific findings, preventive measures focused on protecting the future and health, quality of life and social safety.


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