Designing Optimal Vision to the aim of Environmental Hazards Reduction (Case Study: Shams-e-Tabrizi Complex)

Document Type : Applied Article


1 PHD Student in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Site analysis in the architectural design process is investigated in terms of many factors that are obtained through a complete evaluation and accurate understanding of the system. A building cannot be imagined separately from the environment. Each building affects and is influenced by the environment interactively [3]. The location of settlements and other man-made facilities is affected by environmental factors, especially geomorphology and geology. The establishment and growth of cities, while not considering the capabilities of the land and its talents have numerous destructive and harmful effects and severely increases the life and financial losses during a crisis. Therefore, the need for preliminary studies for establishing cities and human settlements is further felt [2]. Among the present urban landscape issues, the issue of landscape and the level of the visual impact of existing or designed buildings on the surrounding texture has been always the concern of many experts in this field such as architects, designers, and even urban planners. The building's visibility factor determines whether the building can be observed at any particular point in the surrounding texture or whether there is a perspective to the surroundings at any point of the site or not. To determine the part and the distances of building to be seen, the factor of visual aristocracy is used, which also determines the power of visual impact and influence of the surrounding building [4].
Material and Method
The main objective of the present research is to evaluate and simulate the parametric component of perspective in the process of site analysis in Khoy and Shams Tabrizi site using the Environmental Impact Assessment Matrix method. The present quantitative research was performed through modeling and simulation techniques. To accurately evaluate the effect of the parameters, valid architectural software was utilized such as Rhino and Grasshopper. This work tries to support the designer in designing and not create a plan for the project. Therefore, the studied components in this research are focused on visual components of the design context while the other aspects are not considered.
Discussion and Result
To analyze and evaluate the landscape, factors such as site background, surrounding buildings, green space inside and outside of site, buildings and distant landscapes, topography, and landmark buildings were considered. In the present work, using the environmental impact assessment matrix method, we try to assess the effect of environmental parameters on the perspective component. Matrices can be used to discover direct connections between components in a system. The matrix comprises environmental components that are found in a hypothetical research field [1]. Hence, the relationship and effect of the parameters can be comprehended and expressed. Understanding these effects, an architect can obtain a better comprehension of the subject and obtain more efficient and effective forms. According to the results, topographic factors and surrounding buildings have the greatest effect on calculating the optimal visibility and landscape in a site. Moreover, the perspective from inside to outside of site and vice versa was examined and evaluated separately point by point through coding within the software. According to the calculations of the matrix algorithm for environmental impact assessment, it was indicated that the cells receiving the scores of 5 and higher are appropriate for design and construction.
One of the most important topics in the knowledge of environmental risks is prevention before treatment. Environmental impact assessment can be regarded as an appropriate solution for minimizing negative impacts and environmental hazards. It also provides appropriate solutions and options for decision-making and initial ideas to the designer. Analytical components of the site such as perspective can be used more directly and effectively in the design process through algorithm and parametric methods so that the analysis stage in the design stage can be coordinated, unlike traditional methods. Two simultaneous achievements were obtained in the present research including evaluation of the existing designs and then preparation of a generator for new designs. Indeed, site analysis components can be also both a generator and a tool to assess the final designs (implemented or not).


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