Analysis of the effects of human hazards on the management of border areas (Case study: Southeast Iran; Sistan and Baluchestan)

Document Type : Applied Article


1 Assistant Professor of political Geography of Tehran University of Tehran

2 MA Student of Political Geography of Tehran University of Tehran

3 Ph.D. Student of Political Geography, Kharazmi University of Tehran


Border areas due to their proximity to foreign countries and the geographical and political conditions prevailing in them, have their own characteristics that are considered an integral part of these conditions, which have a direct impact on the development of these areas. Therefore, if these features are not taken into account, it will have a negative impact on the development process and security of border areas and will act as a threat to development. But if this is taken into account and used in the development planning, and planning process of those areas, they will have positive effects and turn from a threat to an opportunity. Some of these characteristics are: distance from the center, geographical isolation, instability of settlement and constant movement of population, illegal border exchanges, cultural, ethnic and religious differences with the interior of the country, and external threats. Accordingly, the crises and insecurities in the southeast of the country cause great human and financial damage to the body of the province, military, law enforcement and security forces, government agencies and the people. High sensitivities of the province due to the geographical location and natural, human and political-cultural, security and military structures and several years of crisis history, the need for comprehensive knowledge of the province and detailed scientific research to discover the causes and factors of insecurity and find appropriate strategies for establishing security and taking advantage of regional opportunities are essential. This can only be achieved through regional studies. Therefore, human hazards in the southeastern region of the country have provided the fragility of this region and the instability of these areas. First, there are serious obstacles to the planning of this area, which should be recognized. Afterward, presenting programs with a visionary perspective sought can control and reduce it and pave the way for development and security in the southeast of the country. Therefore, the main question of the present study is which human hazards have the greatest impact on the management of the border areas of southeastern Iran.
Materials and methods
The research method in this article is a mixed (quantitative-qualitative) method. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. The library method has been used to collect the required information. In the library section, descriptive information is collected from books, articles, reports, and statistical yearbooks. These studies have been conducted to identify effective human hazards as well as theoretical foundations of research. Then the appropriate criteria were identified according to the purpose of the research. Also, field method and interviews with experts and a researcher-made questionnaire were used. Sampling method in this research is snowball sampling method. In addition, the sample size in this study includes 70 elites and specialists familiar with human hazards in the southeast of the country. In order to analyze the data obtained from the collected questionnaires, qualitative analyzes as well as descriptive and inferential statistical methods have been used. Thus, SPSS26 statistical software was used to describe the answers given to the general questions of the research questionnaire and Friedman test was used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses.
Discussion and Results
The most effective human hazards in the planning of Sistan and Baluchestan province can be summarized as follows:

Poverty: Sistan-Baluchestan province is far from any advantage and employment due to its distance from the center and being in the blind spot of the country, and also due to lack of mismanagement of officials, and lack of use of potentials in this province. Unemployment is high in the province, which is why Sistani citizens have joined terrorist groups or smuggled goods. Based on this, it can be said that poverty is one of the most important factors that affect the planning of this area. Therefore, the development of this area with a landscape perspective should be written in such a way that in the shortest time, the economic situation of the residents of this area grows and attracts their satisfaction.
Foreign nationals: Slums around large cities and begging are the consequences of the presence of Afghan and Pakistani immigrants in the geographical area of ​​Sistan and Baluchestan. It should also be noted that the economy of the province is in the hands of Afghans and Sunnis in some areas. The uncontrolled growth of the population with a political perspective and its imbued with religious beliefs, has made the population of the province the youngest population in terms of age among the provinces of the country, which along with economic poverty, numerous security, political, educational and training problems and so on, have finally changed the population balance in favor of the Sunnis. They have changed and, in the future, will create a lot of social unrest that with new planning programs should be prevented that foreigners cannot easily make the space fragile.
Migration: The most important problem of the people of Sistan and Baluchestan that leads to migration is water shortage, unemployment, and ecological changes in the region, which in turn leads to migration and the fragile geographical space of Sistan and Baluchestan. Hence, the issue of migration from Sistan and Baluchestan occurred due to drought conditions and problems caused by the Taliban, the diversion of the river and the dryness of Hamoon Wetland. Therefore, in order to prevent the migration of population from this area to other parts of the country, we need to establish sustainable development and security in this area, in the meantime, we need to establish good relations with neighboring countries to prevent water from dams in the river. The border guards have made us stop and bring the flow of life back to this area.
Terrorism: The existence of terrorism and terrorist operations in the southeast of the country (Sistan-Baluchestan), has provided the ground for insecurity and is a serious obstacle to the organization of this area. Therefore, it is necessary for Iran to cooperate with neighboring countries in the field of eradication of terrorism, otherwise, despite the great human dangers in this region, it is possible that in the future the people of this region will become members of terrorist groups and against the regime act in such a way that in this case the government requires them to think of special measures.
Lack of ignition: Sistan and Baluchestan, bordering Afghanistan and Pakistan, can provide many opportunities for the region, but it also poses threats, including smuggling of goods, drugs, and jobs. This is due to the lack of employment, which harms the economy of the country and this region, and also leads to insecurity in this region. Therefore, economic plans should be written with an economic perspective only in this area in order to bring development to this area so that this risk can be controlled in this area and provide a stable ground for this area.

The results show that the existence of human hazards is a serious obstacle to the implementation of beauty programs in this area that needs to be followed by national and local managers to control these hazards in the first step and then reduce them. Therefore, among the research items, "Lack of employment; "Smuggling of goods and drugs" is in the first place with 3.75 points, "poverty" is in the second place with 3.65 points. Among the items, "immigration" is in the third place with a score of 2.86, the presence of foreigners is in the fourth place with a score of 2.40, and terrorism is in the fifth place with a score of 2.33. On this basis, despite these risks, the elites can provide appropriate strategies to provide the basis for sustainable development in this area. Therefore, recognizing these risks and considering them in planning programs is the first step that needs to be considered in the planning document of this area in order to manage the human risks formed in this area.


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