Analyzing the nature and hazards effects of product non-conformity (based on Iranian law and international documents)

Document Type : Applied Article


1 Doctoral student of private law, Azad University, United Arab Emirates branch

2 Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch

3 Islamic Azad University, Yasouj Branch



The non-conformity of goods in transactions can always be considered as one of the types of economic, financial and social risks [1], due to which not only the parties in the sale have problems and risks and possible losses, but also judicial institutions and arbitration courts are inevitably involved in solving the problems. It is possible that it will cause material and spiritual damage to the society. Of course, the nature, scope and scope of risk knowledge is very simple, and if a comprehensive definition of risk knowledge is provided, it consists of knowing the event, phenomenon, process, state, situation and thinking and worldview that may cause loss of life for the individual, population, society and environment, spiritual and financial [2]. In general, many transactions are done during the day, some of which are not done correctly. The non-conformity of the goods in transactions, including sales, leads to damages and losses to the parties and imposes certain legal effects on the seller, buyer and even third parties. In Iranian law, there are provisions for material non-conformity and defects and guarantee of executions according to articles 410 to 415, 437 to 422 in the civil law. In economic relations between individuals, when the goods do not match and the seller does not fulfill the obligation, the customer has the right to cancel the transaction and refund the price he paid, and the obligation to fulfill the undertaking along with the demand for damages for delay in delivery according to the text of the written contracts that have such performance guarantees [3]. A high volume of the density of cases entering the judiciary of Iran is caused by the failure of the parties to fulfill their obligations according to the provisions of the contract and at the times agreed upon by the parties. Also, full compensation is discussed in paragraphs 1 and 2 of articles 3, 4 and 5 of international principles and agreements. Based on this, the injured party is entitled to receive full compensation due to suffering injuries caused by non-performance. In this article, in addition to the problems surrounding domestic contracts, the compatibility of international documents and conventions with domestic laws and the expansion and explanation of their differences and commonalities have also been discussed.
Research methodology
The current research, like other researches in humanities, has been done by analytical and descriptive method and its information has been prepared by library method and by means of data collection. Of course, a kind of field method has been used in the current research by referring to judicial authorities and examining cases with similar issues.
Discussion and findings
Today, legislators are trying to compile a set of regulations or create conditions to reduce the dangerous effects caused by product non-conformity with proper notification. According to the present research, the non-conformity of the goods, both materially and legally, has consequences that affect the parties of the transaction at the time of transfer of the exchange guarantee and after that, and the implementation of the contract according to the provisions of the agreements is faced with difficulties. In Imamiyyah jurisprudence and according to it the civil law of Iran and some other legal systems, the seller is responsible for the loss and he is required to return the price to the buyer, if he has paid. On the surface, this is not compatible with the possession of the sale contract, because the requirement of possession is the transfer of the exchange guarantee to the owner and the lack of responsibility of the seller. In the convention, in order for the customer to be able to use the performance guarantee due to non-conformity, he must inspect the goods in terms of conformity within the shortest period of time. Otherwise, according to articles 38 and 39 of the Vienna Convention, the seller cannot claim responsibility for non-compliance. [4] In Iranian civil law, the difference between the type of goods specified in the contract and what is actually delivered in the contract, especially in the sale of a specific object, causes the contract to be invalid, but if it is a general sale, the seller is required to provide the goods of the promised type. [5] The laws of European countries such as Belgium and France are more similar to the provisions of the Convention on the International Sale of Goods. Regarding performance guarantee, the comparison of Iran's law with the Convention on the International Sale of Goods shows serious differences in the two laws. In Iranian law, failure to determine the amount, type, and description causes the contract to be void or to exercise the option and terminate the contract; While in the Convention on the International Sale of Goods, the mandatory request of the contract, which includes the right of termination, and it is a fundamental breach when it leads to such damage to the other party that basically deprives him of what he is entitled to through the contract. He hopes to deprive it. [6] It should be noted that the effects and risks that arise from the seller's non-compliance with the contract can be considered in several ways: the effects and risks that are imposed on the seller, the effects and risks that arise for the buyer. Effects and risks associated with third parties.
What was obtained from this research shows that both in Iran and in international documents, attention has been paid to the nature and dangerous effects of product non-conformity. In fact, it should be acknowledged that the innovation of this research is that it has examined the issue of risks caused by non-conformity of the goods, which has not been considered in any research so far. In general, the non-conformity of the goods in different transactions can lead to risks that both the seller and the customer and third parties suffer losses and damages. The examination of this issue in the convention indicated that in order to reduce the hardship and prevent the loss of capital due to the termination of the contract, appropriate provisions have been provided for the wrong party, whereby the violator can compensate for the non-compliance in fulfilling his obligations by submitting an alternative or repair goods and documents and compensate. In this regard, Article 34 gives the seller, who has delivered the documents and documents of the goods before the date set for delivery, the possibility to compensate for the non-compliance until the expiration of the contract, provided that the exercise of this right causes unreasonable hardship to the customer or imposing unreasonable costs on him, however, any right to demand damages as stipulated in this convention is reserved for the customer. The same feature can be seen in the principles of European contracts. In Iran's civil law, ambiguity in the amount sold is considered to be the cause of invalidity of the contract of sale, and the delivery of more or less amount is not considered to be a violation of the contract, and it considers different situations. In the general sale, the excess amount belongs to the seller and the seller is responsible for the compensation of the deficit amount. In the sale of an indivisible fixed object, a fraction of the amount gives the buyer the right to cancel, and an excess gives the seller the right to cancel.


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